During its evolution, the fuel injector has moved from the intake manifold to the combustion chamber. This has made them more precise in dispensing fuel. If this precision is thrown off by restrictions, electrical problems or fuel problems, it can cause driveability issues. There are times you’ll know when you need a replacement, and you can use a company like dtmfuel.co.uk.
A restriction of only 8% to 10% in a single fuel injector can lean out the fuel mixture and cause a misfire. When this occurs, unburned oxygen enters the exhaust and makes the O2 sensor read lean. On older multiport systems that fire the injectors simultaneously, the computer compensates by increasing the “on” time of all the injectors, which can create an overly rich fuel condition in the other cylinders. Direct fuel injectors are more sensitive to restrictions because of the precise amount of fuel they inject into the combustion chamber.
In turbocharged engines, dirty injectors can have a dangerous leaning effect that may lead to engine-damaging detonation. When the engine is under boost and at a higher rpm, it needs all the fuel the injectors can deliver. If the injectors are dirty and can’t keep up with the engine’s demands, the fuel mixture will lean out, causing detonation to occur. The leaning out may cause higher than normal exhaust temperatures and turbo failure. When the engine is shut off, the injectors undergo heat soak. Fuel residue evaporates in the injector nozzles, leaving the waxy olefins behind. Because the engine is off, there is no cooling airflow moving through the ports and no fuel flowing through the injectors to wash it away, so heat bakes the olefins into hard varnish deposits. Over time, these deposits can build up and clog the injectors. Even if a vehicle has low mileage, short drive cycles and increased heat soaks can clog the injector.
Since the formation of these deposits is a normal consequence of engine operation, detergents are added to gasoline to help keep the injectors clean. But if a vehicle is used primarily for short-trip driving, the deposits may build up faster than the detergents can wash them away. On four-cylinder engines, the No. 2 and No. 3 injectors are in the hottest location and tend to clog up faster than the end injectors on cylinders No. 1 and No. 4. The same applies to the injectors in the middle cylinders in six- and eight-cylinder engines. The hotter the location, the more vulnerable the injector is to clogging from heat soaks. Throttle body injectors are less vulnerable to heat soak because of their location high above the intake manifold plenum.
Heat soak can affect direct-injection injectors due to their placement in the head. Even with the higher pressures, the orifices can become clogged over time.